Tag Archive | England

Gwenllian ferch Gruffydd Análisis De La Escena: Vestuario

gwenllian-three-acts-espanol-web

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Traducido por Andrés Sotelo Soria:

Buen día y bienvenido seas a tu viaje como recreador, actor o productor de una de las Obras Teatrales de las Mujeres Legendarias de la Historia Mundial.
Como historiadora, me apasiona la historia. Adoro pocas cosas más que ver una obra de teatro del periodo correcto en la que se representan de forma exacta los vestuarios. Pero, ¿qué se puede hacer si tienes poco presupuesto o si vas a montar las obras de “Gwenllian ferch Gruffydd” o de “La Emperatriz Matilda”? ¿Qué pasa si no tienes años de experiencia en investigación de vestidos medievales?

La siguiente es una guía general para las producciones de “Gwenllian ferch Gruffydd: Un obra en tres actos” y para la reconstrucción general de personajes del siglo XII:

ANÁLISIS DE LA ESCENA: VESTUARIO

A menos que se especifique en algún otro sitio, los personajes usan atuendos comunes del siglo XII

MUJERES: vestidos de túnica que llegan hasta el suelo y los primeros briales conocidos, ambos usados con cinturones largos que se ajustan fijamente alrededor de la cintura. Los briales (cuando se usen) se atan de lado. Las capas se usan en la noche y durante los meses de invierno.  Las galesas usan una continuación de la antigua capa envuelta y asegurada con un prendedor llamada “brat”.

bliaut-1bliaut-patternas-veils

HOMBRES:  camisas de túnica que caen hasta la rodilla y pantalones sencillos. El cinturón está amarrado fijamente a la cintura. Las capas se usan en la noche y durante los meses de invierno.  Los galeses usan una continuación de la antigua capa envuelta y asegurada con un prendedor llamada “brat” La jerarquía tanto de los hombres como de las mujeres se muestra a través del tipo de tela y los adornos con bordados elaborados a lo largo del escote, las mangas y dobladillos en los dobladillos de la ropa usada por la realeza. La joyería también establece la jerarquía con anillos elaborados y gargantillas llevadas por los ricos y poderosos.  Nota:  los collares de librea (los cuales se posan de forma plana contra el cuerpo en vez de colgar libremente en el cuello) se usaron por primera vez en el siglo XIV y, por lo tanto, están fuera de este periodo.  Vestuario especialPrólogo: el fantasma de Gwenllian usa un brial de color azul pálido con rosas blancas y narcisos amarillos bordados a lo largo del dobladillo.  Es el mismo vestido que usa Gwenllian en el Acto I, Escena VIII.

Acto I, Escena II: El lodo cubre las capas y las botas de Hywel y el príncipe Gruffydd.

Acto I, Escena VII: Gwenllian usa un bello vestido y una capa bordada.  Su cabello pelirrojo está perfectamente trenzado y cae sobre su espalda.  Una diadema sencilla de nobleza oculta su verdadera posición social como la hija del rey.

Acto I, Escena VIII: Gwenllian usa un brial de color azul pálido con rosas blancas y narcisos amarillos bordados a lo largo del dobladillo.  Lleva sobre su cabeza la diadema real de una princesa de Gwynedd sobre su cabello trenzado descubierto.

Acto III, Escena I: la dama de compañía pone una capa gruesa sobre el vestido de túnica sencillo de Gwenllian. Los sirvientes colocan una armadura pesada sobre el príncipe Gruffydd sobre la cual atan una capa gruesa.

Acto III, Escena II: la armadura del príncipe Morgan, su ropa y su cara están cubiertos de sangre, lodo y hollín.

Acto III, Escena V: los granjeros usan túnicas y pantalones viejos y en su mayoría raídos. Gruffydd ap Llewellyn usa una armadura modesta y está armado con armas de calidad. Morgan y Maelgwn llevan una armadura y armas finas.

 

Twelfth Century Costuming: General Guidelines for “Gwenllian ferch Gruffydd: A Play in Three Acts”

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Fit for a 12th century queen! Heavily embroidered bliaut, cloak, veil, coronet, and wimple.

Bore da! Good morning and welcome to your journey as a medieval re-enactor, actor, or producer of one of the Legendary Women of World History Dramas.

As a historian, history is my passion.  I love few things better than seeing a period-correct drama where the costumes are accurately rendered.  But what do you do if your budget is small or you are playing scenes from either “Gwenllian ferch Gruffydd” or “Empress Matilda of England” stage dramas? What if you don’t have years of expertise researching medieval gowns?

The following is a general guide for productions of “Gwenllian ferch Gruffydd: A Play in Three Acts” and for general re-enactment of 12th century characters/personae:

WOMEN: Floor length tunic dresses and early stage bliauts, both worn with long belts that are knotted secure around the waist. Bliauts (when worn) are side-laced. Cloaks are worn at night and during the winter months.  A continuation of the ancient wrapped and pinned style of cloak called a “brat” is worn by the Welsh.

 

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A simple bliaut showing the side lacing.

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A simple bliaut pattern

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Anglo-Saxon veils and wimples (600-1154)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Most adult Anglo-Saxon and  Anglo-Norman women in this period wear veils and wimples on their head, neck, and shoulders.

MEN:  Knee to floor length tunic shirts and simple trousers. Belt is knotted secure at the waist. Cloaks are worn at night and during the winter months.  A continuation of the ancient wrapped and pinned style of cloak called a “brat” is worn by the Welsh.

 

For both women and men rank is displayed through the type of fabrics worn and ornamentation with elaborate embroidery along the neckline, sleeve, and hemline on the hemline of clothing worn by the royals. Jewellery also establishes rank with elaborate rings and necklaces worn by the rich and powerful.

 

Note:  livery collars (which lay flat against the body instead of hanging freely from the neck) were first worn in the 14th century and therefore are out of period.

 

Special costuming suggestions for “Gwenllian ferch Gruffydd: A Play in Three Acts:”

Prologue: Gwenllian’s Ghost wears a pale blue bliaut with white roses and yellow daffodils embroidered along the hemline.  This is the same gown Gwenllian wears in Act I, Scene VIII.

Act I, Scene II:  Mud covers Hywel and Prince Gruffydd’s cloaks and boots.

Act I, Scene VII: Gwenllian wears a beautiful gown and embroidered cloak.  Her red hair is braided neatly down her back.  A simple circlet of nobility conceals her true status as the king’s daughter.

Act I, Scene VIII: Gwenllian wears a pale blue bliaut with white roses and yellow daffodils embroidered along the hemline.  On her head she wears the royal circlet of a princess of Gwynedd over her otherwise uncovered braided hair.

Act III, Scene: Lady in waiting puts a heavy cloak over Gwenllian’s simple tunic dress. Servants put heavy plate armour onto Prince Gruffydd over which they fasten a heavy cloak.

Act III, Scene II: Prince Morgan’s armour, clothing, and face are covered in blood, mud, and soot.

Act III, Scene V: Farmers wear old and mostly worn out tunics and trousers. Gruffydd ap Llewellyn wears modest armour and is armed with quality weapons. Morgan and Maelgwn wear very fine plate armour and weapons.

History Profile: King William II (Rufus)

270px-William_II_of_EnglandDate of Birth: circa 1056

Place of Birth: Normandy

Date of death:  2 August 1100

Spouse: none

Issue: none

Successor:  Henry I

Openly homosexual and sceptical of the church in a time where questioning Church doctrine was almost unheard of, King William II was the favourite son of his father, William I (the Conqueror).  In 1087 William inherited the throne of England from his father; his elder brother Robert received Normandy while his younger brother Henry received money. A warrior like his father who stammered when he spoke, William worked to extend his father’s conquest of England into Wales and Scotland.  He forced King Malcolm Canmore of Scotland (of Shakespeare’s “MacBeth” fame for his death at MacBeth’s hands) to swear fealty to him and acknowledge him as overlord.  In Gwynedd Wales he retained King Harold Godwinson’s puppet King Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, using him to displace King Gruffydd ap Cynan and force him into exile in Ireland.  In 1093 in Deheubarth, William II’s knights killed King Rhys ap Tewdur at the Battle of Brycheiniog, forcing his four sons into exile, including Prince Gruffydd ap Rhys (the future husband to King Gruffydd ap Cynan’s daughter, Princess Gwenllian).

William Rufus ordered the construction of some of the most famous and infamous castles in all of Wales including Chepstow Castle (1087, the year of his coronation) in Carmarthanshire and Pembroke Castle (birth place to Prince Gruffydd ap Rhys and Princess Gwenllian ferch Gruffydd’s descendent, King Henry VII) in Pembrokeshire in 1093.

In England William Rufus was a passionate hunter who continued his father’s cruel Forest Laws (of Robin Hood fame) and extended them.  It was his love of hunting that opened the door for his younger brother Henry.  On 2 August 1100 under mysterious circumstances King William was struck in the lung by an arrow.  Walter Tirel is given the blame for firing the deadly arrow; many believe it was done on Prince Henry’s orders as a way of getting rid of a violent, impious, and almost universally hated king.

 

Though most people consider Henry I’s descendent King John the most hated king in medieval history, the prize rightfully belongs to King William Rufus whose wars and violent nature not only made him the bane of most English women and men but set the stage for the challenges still experienced forging a united kingdom out of England, Scotland, Wales, and northern Ireland.

History Profile: Queen Boudicca

Date of Birth:  circa 30 CE

Place of Birth:  unknown — likely Gaul

Date of death: 60 or 61 CE — suicide

Spouse: King Prasutagus of the Iceni

Issue: none surviving

Queen Boudicca is the national heroine of England for a reason:  she united rival British tribes and won several military victories against the Romans in a time when that was deemed impossible.

Often depicted as a vengeful warrior out for blood on a personal vendetta, the real Queen Boudicca ruled as her husband’s co-sovereign over the small but technologically advanced and religiously devout Iceni nation.  In 60 or 61 CE King Prasutagus died mysteriously.

Though often assumed to be old age by many, the timing of his death relative to the Roman military campaigns on the Welsh island of Ynys Môn coupled with the terms in Prasutagus’ last will and testament suggest otherwise.  Prasutagus was worth more dead than alive to the Romans, especially as the Romans did not recognize Celtic laws and customs which granted women near complete equality to men.  With his family members all female, the Romans were eager to remove Prasutagus and fully conquer the Iceni.  This suggests to me his death was violent and at Roman hands.

When the Romans invaded her lands, Boudicca did what any sovereign or co-sovereign would do:  she mounted a defence.  After losing the first battle with the Romans in her own community at which she and her daughters suffered outrageous torture and injury, Boudicca struck back, determined to prevent the Romans from harming her people again.

It worked better than she could have expected.  Other tribes, especially her southern neighbour the Trinovantes joined with her, forming a rare confederation that eventually spread across several tribes.

Boudicca achieved unity from within the boundaries of her free and very individualistic society, proving that liberty and unity can exist when we put aside what divides us and choose to work together.

 

Read more about Boudicca in “Boudicca, Britain’s Queen of the Iceni” in your choice of English, Welsh, Welsh-English, Chinese, and Spanish.  Audio edition narrated by Richard Mann.

Five Facts about Queen Mary Stuart of Scotland You Probably Did Not Know

Mary Queen of ScotsMerry Christmas and Happy New Year!  As the holidays begin to wind down a bit (Yule was Monday Night/Tuesday) I thought I would share five things about Queen Mary Stuart of Scotland (1542 -1587) you probably did not know which I learned researching and writing “Mary Queen of the Scots” for the Legendary Women of World History Series.

  1. Queen Mary was born in December. The 8th of December to be exact.  Upon learning of his daughter’s birth, King James V predicted the ruin of his dynasty because she was a girl instead of a boy.
  2. Queen Mary’s love of her life (as evidenced in the poetry she wrote in French), King Francis II of France was incapable of having children.  As much as Mary loved him, too many generations of close marriage resulted in birth defects making children impossible for the happy couple.  As dangerous as the political situation turned out for Mary after Francis’ death in 1560, had he lived longer the situation would have likely become far worse for Mary and for Scotland as a whole.
  3. Lord Darnley was the healthiest suitor to Queen Mary–but not her first choice.  Understanding her duty to remarry following Francis’ death, Mary actually considered many possible suitors from across Europe.  The 16th century royals however were especially plagued with health issues (including King Edward VI of England whom Henry VIII tried to force Mary to marry).  Unwilling to marry beneath her class, Henry Stewart (also descended of Queen Consort Margaret Tudor) was Mary’s best chance at producing an heir.
  4. Protestant reformer John Knox was both her dangerous enemy and her friend.  True to the complexities of Mary’s court and her life as a whole, Queen Mary found John Knox to be an amiable companion when hunting or shooting her bow despite his efforts to impose radical Protestantism onto Scotland and depose Mary as queen.
  5. Queen Mary’s return from France transformed Edinburgh Castle into the bright and beautiful place it is today. Prior to Queen Mary’s reign Edinburgh Castle was a cold, dark, and dreary place.  This was in sharp contrast with the glittering palaces of Paris where she grew up and eventually reigned (briefly) as queen.  Partially to make Edinburgh Castle a proper and comfortable home for herself, Mary commissioned numerous improvements, adding beauty and glamour that was previously absent in Scottish courts.

 

Mary Queen of the Scots

Learn more about Queen Mary Stuart in “Mary Queen of the Scots, the Forgotten Reign,” book three of the Legendary Women of World History Series.  Available for kindle, Nook, iBookstore, and in paperback on Amazon, and at a retailer near you.

Biography includes comprehensive bibliography, extensive timeline, and translations of Roman Catholic prayers from Latin to English.  Also available in French, German, Italian, Chinese, and Spanish. See https://bit.ly/2IWJeOB for links to non-English editions.

Owen and Catherine: the Love Story that launched the Tudor dynasty

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Just then a scream echoed in the forest.  Drawing their swords, Linet and Boudicca charged towards the sound.  By the time they reached the source all that could be seen was Prasutagus, his blood spilling into the ground – as if a year-king killed as an offering to the gods for his people.  Prasutagus looked up, his eyes blurring, “Boudicca?”

Boudicca knelt, weeping, the blood from his chest wound soaking her dress, “I am here.”

“A Roman – scout – I – surprised him.” gasped Prasutagus, trying in vain to tell his wife what happened, knowing the moment he died rage would fill her – rage against Rome.

Boudicca kissed him tenderly, “My love, do not leave me!”  Prasutagus kissed her repeatedly, his eyes fixed on hers until they saw no more.  Feeling his spirit leave his body, Boudicca wept, as if her entire life suddenly passed with him – at least for this moment.  Finally, she rose, helping Linet carry him to their chariot.  With a gentle nudge of the reigns the horses turned for home and the sad work ahead.

—————

Welcome to RomanceFest 2015!  I hope all month long you’ll discover many amazing books from some of the top independent authors in the world.

Complete Series 3D

My contribution to RomanceFest is a bit different.  Rather than offering you the thrilling paranormal science fiction romance of the Peers of Beinan Series, I decided to take a different, much more risky approach.  I decided to make my RomanceFest books CREATIVE NON-FICTION HISTORY for young readers and family audiences.

In the excerpt you just read above and audio excerpt you just heard on the youtube video, you experienced the powerful love between King Prasugasus of the Iceni and his wife, Queen Boudicca.  Boudicca is remembered every year in King’s Cross London for destroying the Roman cities of Camulodunum (originally the capital of the Trinovantes, the southern neighbour to the Iceni in what is now Essex), Londonium, and Saint Albans in the year 61 CE.  Typically she is portrayed as a vengeful shrew getting back at the Romans for publicly flogging her and raping her two daughters (aged 10-12 years old).  I took a different approach with the biography, one intensely grounded in archaeology and one taking a broader look at the cultures of ancient Britain.  Boudicca:  Britain’s Queen of the Iceni is creative non-fiction history for young readers and families at its absolute finest, one benefiting immensely from the dynamic artistry of British voice artist and actor Richard Mann (easily the best English actor you probably never heard of — yet!).

Now I would like to introduce you to Queen Catherine de Valois.  Shakespeare immortalized Catherine in “Henry V,” a play very much taking King Henry’s point of view.  The real Henry and the real Catherine were very different.  In my biography for younger readers and families, you meet the real Catherine de Valois: bright, educated, and religiously devout.  You see her in her historical context as she navigates her father’s mental illness, the French civil war between house Valois and the Duchy of Burgundy, and her brother Charles’ struggles to become king of France — with a little help from Joan of Arc.

But more importantly, you explore her relationships with King Henry V of England, their son King Henry VI, and the true love she found in Owen Tudor.  It is a beautiful, romantic tale to inspire generations of girls and women.

I am pleased to announce that in May or June 2015 Richard Mann and I will release the audio edition of Catherine de Valois on Audible, Amazon, and iTunes.  So take a listen to the above audio book excerpt, then download your copy of Catherine de Valois on Amazon.com, Barnes/Noble, Smashwords, or Ibookstore.

 

Enter to win a free copy of Catherine de Valois! Winners announced 31st of May 2015

Character Profile: Queen Boudicca

Today’s historical person is Boudicca:  Queen of the Iceni.

Boudicca:  Britain's Queen of the Iceni

Series Name:  The Legendary Women of World History

Character name: Boudicca

Date of Birth: Circa 30 CE

Place of Birth: Gaul — Aedui Tribe

Reigned: 1st century of the common era

Died: 61 CE

Book appearing in: Boudicca:  Britain’s Queen of the Iceni in kindle and audio edition narrated by Richard Mann

Profile:   Born in slavery among the Aedui in Gaul just decades after Julius Caesar conquered her people, Boudicca escaped to Britannia in pursuit of freedom.  Finding true love in King Prasutagus of the Iceni, she co-ruled the religiously devout Iceni until Roman atrocities across Britannia forced her into one of the most famous confrontations in ancient history.

Ideal actress to play in a film adaptation: Amy Adams would make a powerful Boudicca.

 

Connect with author-historian Laurel A. Rockefeller on twitter.

Character Profile: King Henry V of England

Today’s historical person is King Henry the Fifth of England.

 

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Portrait of King Henry V of England.

Series Name:  The Legendary Women of World History

Character name: King Henry V of England

Parents names: King Henry IV (Henry Bolingbroke) and Welsh noblewoman Mary de Bohun

Date of Birth: 16th September 1386.

Place of Birth: Monmouth Castle, Monmouthshire, Wales.

Reigned: 9th April 1413 to 31st August 1422.

Died: 31st August 1422 while on campaign near Paris, France.

Book appearing in: Catherine de Valois

 

 

Catherine de ValoisProfile:  Immortalized in Shakespeare’s play, “Henry V,” the real king was an ardent warrior who spent much of his reign trying to conquer France. After making outrageous demands, he used Princess Catherine as his excuse for renewing the Hundred Years War.  At home, Henry made English the official government language in England for the first time since the Norman Conquest.

Ideal actor to play in a film adaptation: Dr. Who alumnus Christopher Eccleston has an unsurpassed stage presence that worthy of the legendary king of England.

Connect with author-historian Laurel A. Rockefeller on twitter.

Chinese excerpt: Boudicca 《不列颠女王布迪卡》

Boudicca Chinese cover

《不列颠女王布迪卡》是一种创造性的非小说类传记适合年轻读者探索古代世界最伟大的女主人公之一的生命。在 61 CE 布狄卡在什么成为最后的大立场,反对英伦三岛的罗马人征服团结大多数英语凯尔特人震惊罗马元老。

可以点燃在中国英文印在纸上(只有英文),和音频编辑理查曼叙述。

在这个场景中,从第四章,一个虔诚的布狄卡寻求智慧的摩瑞根。

————————————-

爱西尼人度过了两年和平安稳的时光。至今为止,那个罗马城主似乎一直在

履行着他的诺言。但是时间一天天过去,爱丽丝和摩根越来越焦虑不安,因为她

们的预感越来越强烈,可怕的梦境似乎很快就会成真。

布迪卡看着女儿们,她的心也随着她们所受的煎熬而疼痛。终于,在仲夏节

的三天前,她和莱内特驾着她的轻巧战车驶向了一个供奉着摩莉甘女神的小神殿,

那座神殿坐落于她们村庄北边一片葱郁的古老森林里。布迪卡和莱内特不眠不休

地祈祷了整整一天一夜,祈求女神的指引。

最终,黎明的曙光穿过了厚重的树林,鸟儿也从睡梦中醒来。莱内特站起来,

将手放在布迪卡的肩膀上,“殿下,我们必须回去了。”

“我们没有办法在即将到来的惨剧中存活下来,我亲爱的朋友——虽然现在

的情况似乎是我们取得了短暂的和平,但是我们都知道,属于我们的战争即将到

来。罗马人并不像我们一样平等地对待妇女,那个城主——保利努斯,他甚至从

没将我当做爱西尼的王后看待过——他认为我只是我丈夫寝宫里的一个私人奴

隶罢了。一旦我的丈夫出了什么事,他们就会将所有东西占为己有。爱西尼人会

重蹈我的族人的覆辙。”布迪卡哭泣道。

“我们不会成为他们的奴隶,我们可以反抗,可以战斗。事实上西边的战争

号角已经吹响,他们会践踏我们的信仰,但是我们不会害怕。我们拼尽所有同他

们战斗,女神会帮助我们。殿下,正如我们所尊崇、所追求的目标:人人自由与

平等!他们认为我们这些体质柔弱的女人生来就低人一等,但是我们知道不是这

样的,我们知道我们都是平等的。诸神会帮助我们打赢这一仗,战神卡姆洛斯会

成为我们的战士!”莱内特的眼中似乎燃烧起了熊熊烈焰。

“卡姆洛斯肯定恨罗马人夺走了他的城市并占为己有,他肯定尤其憎恨在他

的城市建立起的供奉死去的克劳迪亚斯皇帝的神殿。然而神殿还在,我们从前向

他祈祷的地方现在也成为了克劳迪亚斯的祭祀场,却什么都没有发生——这样的

卡姆洛斯战神如何能为我们战斗?”布迪卡问。

“所有的这些都将成为他帮助我们清理个充满罗马人恶臭的城市的理由。当

我们会将这座城市重新贡献给他——当我们获得自由的时候。”

这时森林里突然传来一阵尖叫声。莱内特和布迪卡立刻拿起她们的宝剑向声

音传来的方向冲去。当她们抵达声音的发源处时,只看到普拉苏塔古斯躺在地上,

血流了一地。时间像是过了一年那么久——国王被杀害了,为了他的子民,将自

己作为祭品贡献给了神明。普拉苏塔古斯向上看去,他的眼睛已经变得模糊,“布

迪卡?”

布迪卡哭着跪了下来,任由从他胸前的伤口流出的鲜血染红她的裙子,“我

在这。”

“一个罗马的,侦察兵,我,他没想到我会出现在这里。”普莱修亚斯大口

喘气,想要告诉他的妻子发生了什么事,却无能为力。他知道他一死,愤怒便会

倾覆她——针对罗马的愤怒。

布迪卡温柔地吻他,“亲爱的,我的爱人,不要离开我!”普拉苏塔古斯一遍

又一遍地回吻她,他们一直都专注地看着对方的眼睛,直到有一方再也无法看到。

布迪卡感觉到他的生命逝去的那一刻,悲伤得好像她的整个生命也随之而去了。

最终,布迪卡还是勉力站了起来,和莱内特合力将她的丈夫搬上了战车,指挥着

马慢慢走向家的方向,走向那个悲伤的未来。

几天后,一个二十人士兵小队和五个百夫长带着他们的手下从曾经的爱西尼

人的南边邻国——特里诺万特的首都,现在的罗马首都科尔切斯特出发来到爱西

尼部落。这支队伍对于罗马人而言算是规模比较小的,代表着罗马掌权者希望能

够避免冲突,顺利执行普拉苏塔古斯的遗嘱,取得爱西尼的掌控权的心愿。走在

队伍最前方的是百夫长马库斯·维特斯,他在当地出生,母亲却来自于塞纳河畔

的埃杜维部落。当他来到布迪卡所在的这座军事化防卫的村庄外时,布迪卡不能

自已地盯着这个颇具埃杜维人长相的男人。布迪卡果断拦截他,“来者何人?”

“我,百夫长马库斯·维特斯,代表伟大罗马皇帝尼禄和城主盖乌斯·苏维

托尼乌斯·保里努斯来此。你们的国王已经死去,你们的王国现在属于我们。”

“不,百夫长。我的女儿们和尼禄各自拥有一半。按照英国人的惯例,在我

的子民认为她们具有管理一个国家的能力之前,我,作为王后,作为普拉苏塔古

斯的遗孀,有权接管这个国家。”

“你是个女人,在罗马律法下你没有权利这样做。”

“但在爱西尼法律下我有。”

“现在没有爱西尼了,只有奴隶。”马库斯宣布,并在布迪卡拔出她的宝剑

前抢先将她制住。在其他百夫长的帮助下,马库斯捆住了一直在挣扎的布迪卡和

她的女儿们,并堵住她们的嘴,强迫她们看他们的士兵怎么扫荡整个村庄。每个

爱西尼人都拿起武器,在他们的国王尸骨未寒时毅然决然地反击罗马的入侵,勇

敢地与罗马人战斗,硝烟一片。趁着罗马人的注意力完全被激烈的战争吸引,莱

内特悄悄地逃出村庄向不列颠岛的其他部落示警。

Reblog: History of Halloween

Merry Samhain everyone!  In honor of Samhain and Halloween, I am re-posting a lovely article I found this morning  by Benjamin Radford of Live Science about the history of Halloween.  Enjoy!

 

——————————-

Halloween is the season for little ghosts and goblins to take to the streets, asking for candy and scaring one another silly. Spooky stories are told around fires, scary movies appear in theaters and pumpkins are expertly (and not-so-expertly) carved into jack-o’-lanterns.

Amid all the commercialism, haunted houses and bogus warnings about razors in apples, the origins of Halloween are often overlooked. Yet Halloween is much more than just costumes and candy; in fact, the holiday has a rich and interesting history.
Samhain

Halloween, also known as All Hallows’ Eve, can be traced back about 2,000 years to a pre-Christian Celtic festival held around Nov. 1 called Samhain (pronounced “sah-win”), which means “summer’s end” in Gaelic, according to the Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries. [Related: 13 Halloween Superstitions & Traditions Explained]

Because ancient records are sparse and fragmentary, the exact nature of Samhain is not fully understood, but it was an annual communal meeting at the end of the harvest year, a time to gather resources for the winter months and bring animals back from the pastures. Samhain is also thought to have been a time of communing with the dead, according to folklorist John Santino.

“There was a belief that it was a day when spirits of the dead would cross over into the other world,” Santino told Live Science. Such moments of transition in the year have always been thought to be special and supernatural, he added.

Halloween provides a safe way to play with the concept of death, Santino said. People dress up as the living dead, and fake gravestones adorn front lawns — activities that wouldn’t be tolerated at other times of the year, he said.

But according to Nicholas Rogers, a history professor at York University in Toronto and author of “Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night” (Oxford University Press, 2003), “there is no hard evidence that Samhain was specifically devoted to the dead or to ancestor worship.

“According to the ancient sagas, Samhain was the time when tribal peoples paid tribute to their conquerors and when the sidh [ancient mounds] might reveal the magnificent palaces of the gods of the underworld,” Rogers wrote. Samhain was less about death or evil than about the changing of seasons and preparing for the dormancy (and rebirth) of nature as summer turned to winter, he said.

Though a direct connection between Halloween and Samhain has never been proven, many scholars believe that because All Saints’ Day (or All Hallows’ Mass, celebrated Nov. 1) and Samhain, are so close together on the calendar, they influenced each other and later combined into the celebration now called Halloween.
Costumes and trick-or-treating

The tradition of dressing in costumes and trick-or-treating may go back to the practice of “mumming” and “guising,” in which people would disguise themselves and go door-to-door, asking for food, Santino said. Early costumes were usually disguises, often woven out of straw, he said, and sometimes people wore costumes to perform in plays or skits.

The practice may also be related to the medieval custom of “souling” in Britain and Ireland, when poor people would knock on doors on Hallowmas (Nov. 1), asking for food in exchange for prayers for the dead.

Trick-or-treating didn’t start in the United States until World War II, but American kids were known to go out on Thanksgiving and ask for food — a practice known as Thanksgiving begging, Santino said.

“Mass solicitation rituals are pretty common, and are usually associated with winter holidays,” Santino said. While one tradition didn’t necessarily cause the others, they were “similar and parallel,” he said.
Tricks and games

These days, the “trick” part of the phrase “trick or treat” is mostly an empty threat, but pranks have long been a part of the holiday.

By the late 1800s, the tradition of playing tricks on Halloween was well established. In the United States and Canada, the pranks included tipping over outhouses, opening farmers’ gates and egging houses. But by the 1920s and ’30s, the celebrations more closely resembled an unruly block party, and the acts of vandalism got more serious.

Some people believe that because pranking was starting to get dangerous and out of hand, parents and town leaders began to encourage dressing up and trick-or-treating as a safe alternative to doing pranks, Santino said.

However, Halloween was as much a time for festivities and games as it was for playing tricks or asking for treats. Apples are associated with Halloween, both as a treat and in the game of bobbing for apples, a game that since the colonial era in America was used for fortune-telling. Legend has it that the first person to pluck an apple from the water-filled bucket without using his or her hands would be the first to marry, according to the book “Halloween and Commemorations of the Dead” (Chelsea House, 2009) by Roseanne Montillo.

Apples were also part of another form of marriage prophecy. According to legend, on Halloween (sometimes at the stroke of midnight), young women would peel an apple into one continuous strip and throw it over her shoulder. The apple skin would supposedly land in the shape of the first letter of her future husband’s name.

Another Halloween ritual involved looking in a mirror at midnight by candlelight, for a future husband’s face was said to appear. (A scary variation of this later became the “Bloody Mary” ritual familiar to many schoolgirls.) Like many such childhood games, it was likely done in fun, though at least some people took it seriously.
Christian/Irish influence

Some evangelical Christians have expressed concern that Halloween is somehow satanic because of its roots in pagan ritual. However, ancient Celts did not worship anything resembling the Christian devil and had no concept of it. In fact, the Samhain festival had long since vanished by the time the Catholic Church began persecuting witches in its search for satanic cabals. And, of course, black cats do not need to have any association with witchcraft to be considered evil — simply crossing their path is considered bad luck any time of year.

As for modern Halloween, Santino, writing in “American Folklore: An Encyclopedia” (Garland, 1996), noted that “Halloween beliefs and customs were brought to North America with the earliest Irish immigrants, then by the great waves of Irish immigrants fleeing the famines of the first half of the nineteenth century. Known in the North American continent since colonial days, by the middle of the twentieth century Halloween had become largely a children’s holiday.” Since that time, the holiday’s popularity increased dramatically as adults, communities and institutions (such as schools, campuses and commercial haunted houses) have embraced the event.

Through the ages, various supernatural entities — including fairies and witches — came to be associated with Halloween, and more than a century ago in Ireland, the event was said to be a time when spirits of the dead could return to their old haunting grounds. Dressing up as ghosts or witches became fashionable, though as the holiday became more widespread and more commercialized (and with the arrival of mass-manufactured costumes), the selection of disguises for kids and adults greatly expanded beyond monsters to include everything from superheroes to princesses to politicians.

Staff writer Tanya Lewis contributed to this article.

 

Money mind holes — why getting too specific hurts Manifestation

If you are following anything related to The Secret or the Law of Attraction, you have probably heard the mantra of “be specific about what you want.”  When it comes to attracting money in particular, the experts tell you to get very specific, to meditate “I want fifty million dollars by December 2014.”

 

This is great if numbers make sense to you on a subconscious level.  But what if they do not?  What if in saying out a number, you actually block your meditation from moving from your conscious, intellectual self to your subconscious emotional self where the Law of Attraction actually does its work?

 

On this blog and across the internet, I am very open about both my violent upbringing and about the consequences of the traumatic brain injury I suffered in November 1985 when a right turning automobile struck me in the left temple as I was crossing the street on my way home from school.

Besides the sight loss and the chronic migraines suffered ever since, the most prominent residual from that TBI remains my dis-connection with numbers in the arithmetic sense.  Show me a regular value in a ledger, a bank statement, etc. and my brain does not connect to it.  Shift that from a regular numeral value to a spatial value — a gram of weight, a unit of time, a temperature, a quantity of milk or fabric or other everyday object and I understand just fine.  Or thought of another way, I can still and rather expertly relate to concentrate numbers specifying an amount of something I can see, feel, hear, experience with my senses.  But when it comes to straight numbers, especially applied to something even more abstract — like money — and neither my intellectual mind nor my emotional subconscious understands.

 

If something does not exist to your subconscious mind, you simply cannot manifest it through the Law of Attraction.  You cannot feel yourself already in possession of that which does not exist to you.

 

And this is the problem with a lot of the goals we try to set for ourselves, where fear and doubt easily creep in.  What we are asking for only exists to our intellect; it doesn’t exist to our hearts.

This summer when I tried using Napoleon Hill’s meditation telling me to specify the amount of money I want, when I want to receive it, what I will give up to receive it, and the plan to obtain it my meditation became, “£50 million is mine and shall be in my account before 31st December 2014.  Everyday I am marketing and selling my books and shall give up my time in order to sell so many books that I earn £50 million.”

What I realize today is there is not one, but two flaws in the meditation.  First, as I outlined already, I have no emotional connection or concept of what £50 million is.  My mind, let alone my heart, doesn’t really understand the concept of money.  I understand tangible things bought with money, but not the money itself.  I do not connect to money; only to what it buys.  Second, the pathway specified is upstream to me.  I actually HATE marketing.  I hate begging people to buy my books.  And I especially hate the current financial pressure I am under — wondering if I am about to go bankrupt because there is not enough money in my checking account to cover September’s credit card payment (quite literally).

 

If you have followed anything from Abraham Hicks, you know that negative emotions take you AWAY from what you want.  Forcing yourself to do anything is paddling upstream.  It is the opposite of allowing.  It’s conflict, drama, worry, strife, all the things you must abolish from your life in order to attain what you want and need in life.

 

So after stressing and wrestling overnight, after enough tears of “oh my god my life is over” (no really it is not!) and so forth, it occurred to me that the problem was this meditation itself.  So I re-wrote it to this:

“ALL THE MONEY I NEED TO IMMIGRATE AND ESTABLISH MY NEW LIFE AND NEW CAREERS IN MY NEW HOUSE NEAR LONDON IS MINE AND SHALL BE IN MY ACCOUNT BEFORE 31ST DECEMBER 2014.

EVERYDAY I SHALL CREATE SOMETHING NEW AND TELL THE WORLD ABOUT HOW GREAT MY WORK IS.

BY DECEMBER I SHALL FILE MY IMMIGRATION PAPERS AND LEAVE JOHNSTOWN

FOR NYC AND FOR HOME IN ENGLAND.”

 

Let me tell you, the vibrational difference in this is HUGE — even though the core is exactly the same.  How?  First, it reassures me that everything is okay — because it is — taking that upstream pressure off me.  Second, it focuses on the CORE VALUES motivating me.  Money, being too abstract to me, does not have much independent meaning for me.  But where I live, the politics around me, the way people talk around me, my interactions with my landlord, the quality of my everyday life, now THESE ARE CONCRETE TO ME.  Third, I can easily see myself in possession of all of this.

I can see myself in a lovely house in the south of England (and yes, I have a good idea how much such a house costs) with my modest flower and vegetable garden sanctuary.  I can see myself hosting small dinner parties attended by friends and colleagues.  I can smell the English rain.  I can see myself taking the train into London to see a play.  I can hear Rolling Stones Now as I attend one of their concerts in person, cheering on Richard Mann as “Mick” during the concert.  And I can see myself walking in these fantastic historical places I have so far only explored in books, making history much more real for me.  Oh the pleasure I shall feel the first time I walk in London and can finally understand these places are REAL. There are a thousand places in England I want to explore.  I can feel the light from the eyes of my British-born friends as they watch me discover what each of them have always taken for granted.  It will be this amazing experience across the board, my enthusiasm touching everyone around me as I finally find myself at home.

 

THIS IS WHAT IS REAL TO ME.  THIS IS WHAT I CAN SEE/FEEL MYSELF IN POSSESSION OF.  It’s not the £50 million I concretely want — though yes, I know that buying my dream house is expensive, so is just legal immigration and moving to England in the first place, something I cannot do until my credit cards and my education are paid off.  But the money is the means to the end.  That is all it is to me, not the end unto itself.  Money frees me to leave the United States.  Money convinces London to grant my application for permanent residency.  Money buys my home and everything in it.  Money brings my most cherished possessions across the ocean and hires those skilled at filing the paperwork to bring my precious cockatiels out of the United States and into the United Kingdom (this costs about £2000 to £4000 for those unaware).  Yes, the financial needs to achieve what I really want are quite high.  This is not cheap.  The Law of Attraction knows this and is abundantly providing all of it to me.

But first I must allow it to be.  First I must put my emotions where all of this is achieved.  I cannot feel the money.  But I can feel my house.  I can feel my home office.  I can hear the parties.  I can see myself relaxing in my garden, a pen/paper in hand to write out ideas that come to me.  And I can feel that famous English rain.

 

I know it will be.

Medieval Militias: a Brief History of England and Europe’s Primary Defense Forces

This article published on June 21st, 2012 was originally written in response to the raging gun control debate exploding at the time.  In that debate, I kept hearing ardent defenses of the 2nd Amendment to the US Constitution which states in full, “A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.”

Being a history person, I therefore took the time to look into the history of militias in hoping of shedding light onto the context behind these most controversial words in the US Constitution.

 

Medieval Militias: a Brief History of England and Europe’s Primary Defense Forces

When most people hear the word “militia,” Colonial America minutemen probably come to mind. Others may remember that it was the Massachusetts militia that Congress adopted and assigned to George Washington in 1775 in order to free Boston from occupying Crown forces. To this Massachusetts colonial militia, Congress merged the colonial militias of the other twelve colonies, forming what became the “Continental Army.”

But this new Continental Army was not an army in the modern sense nor did it form in a historical vacuum. Instead, the American militias that became George Washington’s forces all evolved out of a much older tradition that goes back more than one thousand years before the Founding Fathers and Founding Mother’s time.

It all began in antiquity, as most things ultimately do. Celtic and Germanic peoples competed for resources across Europe, each with very distinct war traditions. Medieval England would take most of their traditions from the Germanic tribes.

Ancient Germanic cultures maintained a tradition of calling forth every able bodied man to fight in times of crisis; professional soldiers were not part of this equation. This tradition became part ofEnglish Common Law even as a more codified feudal system emerged. These first militias were the backbone of defense across Europe; mercenaries were hired sometimes but were so expensive that they were particularly rare in the first millennium of the Common Era. Starting in the eleventh century, the numbers of professional, mercenary soldiers grew thanks to the evolution of a new practice called “scutage.” In scutage, a vassal pays money to his liege lord in exchange for being excused from personally providing military service. With this money, kings and nobles bought more mercenaries than they ever could before. As with most things, Europe’s transition from barter to money-based economics facilitated that shift. Soon it became common for the wealthiest to pay their way out of putting their own necks on the line on the field of battle, increasing the number of mercenaries a king or noble could employ.

But mercenaries were no solution to the problem of how to defend a nation. In England, non-feudal militias were encouraged through laws requiring every able bodied man to keep weapons and train with them. The Welsh longbow became the natural weapon of choice; they were relatively inexpensive and could be owned by even the poorest Englishman. Laws were passed to encourage proficiency with bows. By the Hundred Years War, the result of generations of encouraged archery proficiency rang clear with English victories against the French rooted in the skill of English bowmen – nearly all of these longbow men serving in the militia. As mercenaries became more ruthless in their treatment of civilians, resentment against professional soldiers grew; only the militia made up of their peers could be trusted.

This belief that militia, not professional soldiers, could be trusted stayed with English society through the 17th and 18th centuries, becoming part of colonial American attitudes towards professional verses non-professional soldiers and, ultimately made its way into the United States Constitution through the Second Amendment guaranteeing, just as 13th century English law, the rights of ordinary citizens to defend the country instead of a professional army.

A little about the Dobunni

Hello everyone.  As many of you heard, I am starting a new series besides the Peers of Beinan:  historical fiction stories for children about inspiring women in history.

 

The first volume of five stories will cover ancient and medieval British history with a target audience of age seven and up.

 

The first of these stories has no title yet, but is about Queen Boudicca and is told by a Dobunni woman by the name of Keita to her daughter Moira as she and her daughter make cheese, a food the Roman soldiers particularly disliked about the British diet.

Here is the little historical blurb about the Dobunni that will appear at the end of the story — along with bibliography (of course)

Map_of_the_Territory_of_the_Dobunni.svg

Did you know?

The Dobunni were dark haired, not light haired like most native British peoples, suggesting they came from ancient Spain.  The name is believed to mean “dark people.”  They differed culturally from their neighbors in many ways, including their preference for peace instead of war.  The Dobunni were brilliant crafts people, as well as farmers like their neighbors, who chose to accept Roman rule in 43 CE.  They maintained a sizable territory in southwest-central England, including the communities that became Bristol, Bath (known as Aqua Sulis by the Romans), and their capital of Cirencester in Gloucestershire. In the 5th/6th centuries the Dobunni were slaughtered in great numbers by the invading Saxons with many of the survivors fleeing to Wales.  Dobunni lands became part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex, both which played key roles in creating the English national identity.

 

Read more about Queen Boudicca, the Iceni, Celtic Britain, and early medieval British history

 

http://www.britainexpress.com/History/Celtic_Britain.htm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/boudicca.shtml

http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=2146412465

http://www.castlewales.com/medwales.html

http://www.unc.edu/celtic/catalogue/boudica/catalog.html

http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-12752497

http://www.historyfiles.co.uk/KingListsBritain/BritainDobunni.htm

http://www.authenticireland.com/ireland-clothing/