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Repost: The 9 Qualities That Help You Thrive Under Pressure

This morning I found this wonderful article from Time about traits that make a person successful.  Here is that article, reposted in full:

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young plantIn new and challenging situations, some people fold under pressure and some manage to squeak by. And then there are the people who really thrive—blossoming in the face of uncertainty or adversity. Now, researchers say they’ve pinpointed a number of personality traits and external factors that, when combined, can predict a person’s chances of thriving.

For their recent paper, published in the journal European Psychologist, scientists from the University of Bath in the U.K. reviewed a wide variety of research on what makes people thrive in all types of circumstances—physically, professionally, athletically, artistically and academically, to name a few. From those studies, they came up with two lists of variables—nine personal traits and six outside influences—that are common among people who continuously grow, learn and succeed in life.

People don’t have to possess every component on these lists in order to thrive, say the authors, but a combination of a few from each list could certainly help. That formula could include any or all of the following:

Qualities

The person should be …

  • optimistic
  • spiritual or religious
  • motivated
  • proactive
  • someone who enjoys learning
  • flexible
  • adaptable
  • socially competent
  • someone with self-confidence and self-esteem

External factors

The person should have …

  • opportunity
  • support from employers, family, or others
  • a manageable level of challenges and difficulties
  • a calm environment
  • a high degree of autonomy
  • the trust of others

These lists may not be very surprising—but the authors say that until now, there has been no real consensus for exactly what characteristics and circumstances help people thrive, or what we can do to increase our chances of doing so.

To sum up their research, lead author Daniel Brown, now a sport and exercise scientist at the University of Portsmouth in the U.K., says that the act of thriving seems to come down to “feeling good about life and yourself and being good at something.”

While some people maybe more naturally prone to thriving than others, Brown says there are things we can do to cultivate these important traits within ourselves. For starters, he recommends relying on internal motivations (things that are truly important to you) rather than external ones (things society says should be important to you), and trying to always look at new situations as opportunities for gain and growth.

There may be ways we can encourage thriving in others, as well—like our kids, our partners, or our employees. “It’s likely to be important for individuals to feel they have a choice in what they are doing, that they hold close and supportive relationships with people around them, and that they perceive themselves having some level of competence in the tasks they are completing,” Brown told Health via email.

More studies are needed to determine which factors are most important for thriving in specific scenarios, and the differences between thriving under serious adversity versus everyday stress, the authors wrote in their paper. But they hope their research is a good stepping-stone for understanding the psychology behind what it takes to be our best selves, no matter what life throws our way.

This article originally appeared on Health.com

 

 

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Death and Taxes: Lessons Learned

Death and Taxes are the two things no one can avoid. While taxes is something we face every year, the death of a parent is something we face only once or twice, depending on our family situation. As I found out with the 2016 death of my mother, our knowledge of how to handle taxes after the death of a parent or other close loved one is very limited.

Despite all the information out there online on both subjects individually, I found it all extremely confusing as I tried to navigate that complexity of what happens with your taxes when someone close to you dies.  Tax law is very complicated and tax guidance is even more complicated. No one wants the liability of telling you anything just in case what they tell you does not apply to you. In most cases, people want you to spend massive amounts of money consulting with attorneys and tax professionals instead of giving you the most basic advice.  It’s akin to a nurse not telling me to run cold water on a burn and sending me to the hospital (at a delay of hours) when my hair caught fire blowing out candles when I was in university. The burn gets worse by not taking immediate action.

The following is what I learned filing my 2016 taxes.  My situation may be different from yours. You may have a more complicated tax situation than I did. What follows is some simple advice from my tax filing as equal beneficiary to my brother who was the executor on her estate.

Taxes to be paid:

  • The executor of the state must file Federal and State income taxes for the deceased. If the deceased has no tax liability, that is fine. But the returns must be filed on behalf of the deceased.
  • If deceased owns her home at time of death and it is to be sold, sell the home as quickly as possible to reduce tax liability and simplify your tax situation. Same for any other property that is usually taxed upon sale.  If you are not keeping the property for the long term, you make your life easier by selling it as soon as possible.
  • If you inherit any annuities or retirement funds, those funds are taxable by the Federal government if they were tax-deferred plans such as 401K, traditional IRA, etc. Pre-pay that tax before you receive any funds if at all possible.  It may not always be possible to pre-pay the taxes so ask the financial institutions involved about it.

The more you pre-pay taxes, the easier filing your return becomes. In this it is no different than when you choose fewer tax deductions as you are working and thus have more taxes taken out of each check as you earn. When the tax season hits, a refund is easier to handle than a big tax bill. Err on the side of caution and pay as much tax as you can before you receive funds from the estate so you don’t over spend and find yourself unable to pay those taxes when the bill arrives.

Now here is the good news:  what is NOT taxable:

  • Cash, savings, checking, and certificate of deposit funds.  That is because the deceased already paid income taxes on those funds.  You do not report these funds to the IRS.  It’s your money.
  • Proceeds from the sale of a home if the executor has paid all applicable taxes up front.  In the common case of a home being sold and its funds being dispersed to multiple beneficiaries, those beneficiaries do not pay taxes on it nor do they claim those funds as income because all taxes have already been paid.  For example:  a home sells for $100,000.  After taxes, attorney fees, and other closing costs the net sale is $80,000.  The Will specifies two beneficiaries which then each receive $40,000. The $40,000 received is not taxable because it’s the net after taxes are paid. The beneficiary does not pay tax on the $40,000; the money stays off the tax return.

 

good-morning-america-18-june-2001-002

My mother and me during a 2001 visit as part of the studio audience for Good Morning America.  This is us with anchor Charles Gibson, one of my mother’s favourite celebrities.

Now of course I’m not a lawyer.  I am not a tax professional. I’m a historian and an author from a humble background.  My mother was not a rich, glamourous person.  She was a teacher before I was born and a factory worker and retail clerk for most of her working life after I was born. She was very average, living paycheck to paycheck and doing creative things to keep us fed and with some sort of roof over our heads.  So her estate was not massive and there were no capital gains taxes that I needed to concern myself with.

Maybe this blog post is useless. But maybe it helps you too.  I stressed out for MONTHS over the tax consequences of my mother’s death. I smartly put 30% of my inheritance into a high yield savings account (I switched to Ally Bank to maximize those earnings) in part because I was terrified that I was going to have to pay nearly everything I inherited back to the government.  I did not. A tax professional explained to me what I just posted and set my mind at ease.  I hope this post does the same for you.

Rest in peace mom. May you find joy in your new incarnation and the love you never found in this life.

Dear Apple, Microsoft: Give Us the Choice Regarding Updating Our Computers

Note:  though this article applies to MacIntosh systems as well, this article references Windows versions.

Remember the old days when you used to be able to turn on your computer, boot it up, and KNOW in a few seconds it was ABSOLUTELY GOING TO WORK?  No spinning wheels, no pins or passwords for your desktop unless you decided to lock your desktop specifically, and no automatic operating system updates?

windows-10

Hard to believe but we had exactly that on windows versions 95 through 7.  Computers were computers and you knew when you turned yours on that at very least your operating system was going to work smoothly and able to run the word processing, spreadsheet, and other essential programs that we all take for granted in a digital age where paper versions and typewriters are a thing of the past.  If you couldn’t connect to the internet (for whatever reason, including not having a dial-up modem back in the old days) you could still work on your computer. It was a machine like any other in your home or business.  Flip the switch and get to work.

That all started to change in 2012 when the first Windows 8 machines rolled out.  Windows 8 was the first Windows OS that imposed updates on users without the option of not updating.  Microsoft sees this as simplifying our lives–but it comes at a price for users.  When you control the updating process you are in control of the down time created by the updates and can break up the process to fit your schedule and needs.

Windows 8 saw the start of this automated process by forcing all updates on users — whether that update applied to the system or not.  That is to say that since Windows 8 treats smart phones, laptop computers, and desktop computers as the same an update that only applies to a smart phone is installed on regular computers.

But at least you could turn off the auto-updates and choose to update when you didn’t need to use your computer.

That key piece of control is OBLITERATED in Windows 10 and most noticeable recently with the new anniversary updates which take control over your machine (even if you are using it, though it’s not supposed to) and updates the system — kicking you out of your computer completely until it’s finished.  What is worse, information about the update is no longer being displayed.  Instead of telling you about the update’s progress and offering a specific time estimate the SCREEN GOES BLACK with ONLY A WHITE SPINNING WHEEL DISPLAYED.  Users have no way of knowing if the update is progressing or if it is stuck and the machine needs to be completely turned off.

In essence you are stuck with a spinning wheel, unable to get into your computer and unable to schedule work and home office activities around it.  Since you cannot decide when it hits and for how long, users lose control over their machines and their lives.

 

Microsoft and Apple both do this with their latest OS; they see it as streamlining our lives since there is nothing manual about the process.  But tell me, how is taking away my computer from me with no way to override it helping me?  I have a home office. My computer is a tower system run from a desk in my home.  I don’t just use this machine for the internet; it’s my job, my work, everything that is social, entertainment,and especially professional about my life.  I don’t want it controlled by Microsoft (or Apple if I used a Mac).  I NEED TO BE IN CHARGE OF MY COMPUTER AND MY OWN TIME.

All because Apple and Microsoft have stopped treating the OS as a product to be installed on a machine and now treat it as a SERVICE to be CONTINUOUSLY PROVIDED — like your subscription to Amazon prime.

But I can cancel my Amazon prime subscription if I don’t like it or don’t want it.  I can’t cancel my operating system on my computer.

 

Internally this concept is spreading across Microsoft with the release of Office 365 which makes Office programs like Word and Excel SERVICES NOT PROGRAMS.  Photoshop CC is also a service-based program — but given the traditional high expense of Photoshop (sometimes $2000 for a single user), I don’t mind paying $11 per month for Photoshop.  But my key programs — Windows, Word, Excel — without which I cannot work in a given day — different story!

 

And so I’m asking for a return to sense with computers.  It’s fine if Apple and Microsoft want to make these updates easier for those who don’t want to be in charge.  But DESKTOP AND LAPTOP/NOTEBOOK USERS NEED THE ABILITY TO CHOOSE.  Smart phones ARE different from traditional computers.  They need to be treated as different.  Windows 10 is FANTASTIC for smartphones — but it’s TERRIBLE for traditional PCs.  It’s time to bring back MORE personalization and MORE control of the home computer to the user.  Let people decide if they want a service-based or traditional program based (give me my windows on DVD as a backup!) operating system.  Let them decide how they want the interface to work.  STOP IMPOSING SMART PHONE NORMS onto keyboard/mouse systems.  Give me back control over my computing and my computer.

I deserve nothing less!

Review: TravelPro Maxlite 4 tote & spinner

If you follow this blog you know I move around a lot and I travel as often as I can to visit historical sites and sample delicious food I don’t get to eat regularly.  I travel by primarily by train and plane for most trips over 10 miles from home and use public transit for shorter distant trips.  I also use my luggage for shopping via public transit, a trick I learned after canned foods spilled out of my shopping wagon while crossing a busy Brooklyn street several years ago.  So I need something lightweight, durable, and flexible, bags that can handle grocery trips to Walmart as easily as a cross country or international flight as easily as a move to a new home.

American tourister carry on bag

Gifted to me when I was 18, this soft-sided carry on bag has been with me on every flight I’ve ever taken. It readily fits under the seat in front of me on even the smallest plane.

After twenty six years of use and abuse with all of the above I have FINALLY retired my American Tourister shoulder bag carry on I’ve used for every move, every flight, every Amtrak trip I’ve ever taken.  Indeed, it’s still a great bag — if you don’t need something with wheels on it.  That’s why it will still be used for moving, for packing day one items, but for regular travel it’s been retired.

Why the sudden change?  Simple!  I found something better than my shoulder bag and much better than the Skyway brand bags I’ve used for nearly 20 years, bags which rarely come off the baggage claim carousel without some sort of damage.

When shopping for luggage this summer (partially to take advantage of summer sales) I fully expected to buy another American Tourister, a Samsonite, or other major brand bag.  Fortunately for me I consulted Consumer Reports first and discovered that in 2016 the big name brands have performed much worse than lesser known brands in their tests. So it was time to expand my search and find something affordable that also scored well with Consumer Reports.

That is how I discovered the TravelPro brand, a $$ priced brand that is durable, flexible, and easy to use. Among their many collections, the MaxLite 4 bags caught my eye for being reasonably priced and having the features I want most in both carry on and checked bags. An added plus:  it comes in blue, black, and a very eye catching and fashionable purple.

maxlite 4 tote frontmaxlite 4 tote open

After looking at nearly 100 different bags marked “under seat” on ebags.com I decided upon the MaxLite 4 tote which (minus the wheels) is 15.5″ x 13″ x 8.5″.  Ebags sells it for $85 which is also the price on Amazon.com.  But ebags is deceptive:  they claim the MSRP for the bag is $200 — making you think you are getting a sale price and an incredible deal when in fact every competing website offering this bag sells it in the $82-$89 range.

As you can see, this is a very simple, flexible carry on.  It has a front pocket for your travel documents and an open interior space with a mesh pocket on the lid.  Unique to this bag are the velcro fastened side gussets which enable you to access the bag contents without opening it all the way (and having your belongings spill out onto the floor). The bag rolls very smoothly and the handle is the perfect length for easy navigation around an airport or on a train. Best of all:  it holds a LOT of stuff while still fitting neatly under the front seat on most air craft.

travelpro maxlite 4 29 spinnerI love this bag so much I just had to get a matching checked bag. I chose the 29″ spinner (which technically is slightly oversized because the wheels are not part of the listed 29″ x 20.25″ x 12″ dimensions; with the wheels it’s 30 7/8″ x 20.25″ x 13″) and I am so glad I did.  I am also very glad that I bought mine on Amazon.com where it sells for $153 compared to ebags $167.  As with the tote, Ebags deceives you into thinking their higher price is a great deal by claiming the MSRP is $360.

The interior on this bag is very basic and therefore very flexible with two straps for securing your belongings, a small mesh pocket, and a full size lid pocket.  Unlike most bags I’ve owned, the lid pocket zips around three sides, allowing you to lay flat choice clothing items.  The exterior has a single, full size lid pocket.  The handle is short — it’s designed to be used on all four wheels instead of tilted and rolling on two wheels.  The handle makes navigating airports easy, but it is about four inches too short for stacking the matching tote onto it which is really my only criticism of it.

After taking a test run to Walmart I must say I am extremely happy with my spinner, so happy that I would very much like to get the 26″ bag to complete the set.

No matter how you travel or where you are going to, you cannot go wrong with the TravelPro MaxLite 4 series.  I hope you will check out the entire collection because this is a very durable, easy to use, and flexible collection, especially for someone like me who prefers to organize with my packing cubes instead of a bag forcing me to organize a certain way.  It is hands down the best bags I’ve ever owned.  Just be certain to shop around for the best price because deals are to be had if you do.

 

I love Ebags Packing Cubes

I move around a lot.  I also enjoy travelling (as long as my birds are well looked after).  I’m an old-school historian who prefers to physically be where history happened before I write about it.  This means I’ve packed a lot and have learned what works really well.

ebags packing cubesBar none, the best tool for moving or traveling are Ebags brand packing cubes available (no surprise) exclusively from ebags.com.  These cubes have been out for a while — I bought my first packing cubes circa 2002.  Though the buying options have expanded and there are some new sizes available today that were not available when I first purchased them, the quality has remained consistent and they’ve handled the abuse I’ve put them through over several moves since really well.

The classic packing cube (there are now ultralights which have slightly different features) come in slim, small, medium, and large sizes.  These can be purchased as a single four piece set (see left) or in sets of three of the same size.  There’s also a new slim set of slim cubes in three different widths (14″, 10″, and 6.5″). Since my wardrobe is primarily skirts and dresses, I do not find the slim set all that useful.  Most of what I wear fits into the medium and large bag sizes with the slim and small sizes working best for socks, underwear (bras fit very nicely in the standard 14″ wide slim cubes), and accessories. Since they come in several colours, you really can colour code for each family member, making it easy to organize and locate every thing for every one.

ebags shoe boxFor those situations where I’m actually packing shoes, there’s a nice shoe bag that holds a lot!  Depending on how you pack and the type of footwear, you can actually often put two pairs in the same bag and keep everything else nice and clean.

These essentials (standard slim, small, medium, and large cubes, plus the shoe bag) are the core of the product line and bags I’ve had for nearly ten years.  The classics are the best!

But there is a new member to this classic line that does really get me excited as a traveller: the pack it flat toiletry kit.  It’s the essential I didn’t know I needed.  After all, I’ve been very successful in keeping my toiletries in the slim cubes.

This toiletry kit is not bulky.  I use a designer brand toiletry kit for my cosmetics at home.  You know the type:  it’s basically a slightly elongated cube that is as high as it is wide and a little longer on one side.  I never take it with me on trips because it is so difficult to cram into my checked bag — and why would I when I have my slim cubes for the purpose?  This new toiletry kit lets me save my slim cubes for other things.  It’s very organized with a plastic lined left compartment and a slim compartment on the right.  In the middle is an expandable compartment perfect for putting my non liquid cosmetics and of course the main centre compartment that has two zippered compartments and plenty of storage for almost anything you can think of (see photo above). There’s a hook in the top for hanging on a towel bar which I don’t use; I prefer to lay everything flat.

Once closed, this kit lays VERY FLAT. It’s designed to cram into that tiny space we all struggle to find and it works really well.  I don’t have a trip coming yet that I know of and yet just a few hours after receiving my toiletry kit in the mail I feel compelled to fill it up and get it ready for the next trip — grab and go with only a few small additions needed — like medicines where it’s important to pay attention to use by dates.  I am really surprised how much it will hold.  I haven’t figured out the best place for my toothbrush yet — maybe you have some ideas for me?  If you do, just comment below!

As much as I love these for travel, I really love them for moving.  The cubes are DURABLE and you can put so much more than clothing in them though I don’t suggest abusing them; they are still made of fabric and their are limits to what they can do. But for organizing the small “day one” essentials (I pack these in my luggage sets so I can find them among all the boxes) they are fantastic. Cutlery, can openers, and basic utensils fit in the slim cubes with ease so you can find them immediately. Slim cubes are also great for tea cups and most coffee mugs. Layer a couple plates between clothing items in the medium and large cubes.  And of course pack these breakables with small clothing items and kitchen linens.  The same skills that make you a world class traveller make you a world class re-locator.

Where ever you are travelling to this year, I hope ebags packing cubes are part of your travel organization strategy.  Bon voyage!

 

 

 

The Great Purge: Spring Cleaning

It’s March and that means one thing:  SPRING CLEANING.

cleaningNow if you are like most people those two words send shivers up the spine far worse than anything our recent mild winter produced.  You may be thinking of this mountain of work and indeed depending on your household, spring cleaning may involve anything from simply tidying every room  (including scrubbing the shower, toilet, and every sink in the home) to something much more drastic.

 

For me, spring cleaning is the first of two yearly household purges where I look through everything in every cupboard and closet and decide what to keep and what to throw out or donate.  It’s been this way for the last two years as I anticipate moving overseas.  Because let’s face it:  the more stuff you have, the more it costs to move it.  When it comes to a long distance move, that becomes prohibitively expensive!

So here’s the standard I’ve adopted:

  • Anything expired gets tossed.  Some people argue that food, medicine, and cosmetics are still good past expiration dates.  I refuse to risk that.  My health is worth more than whatever the replacement cost is.  To help prevent food loss implement better storage plans where fresher items are at the back and older items are at the front of your shelves and cupboards.
  • cone threadAnything that is not worn or enjoyed at least ten minutes straight in the last two years gets tossed, donated, or downsized.  For example chinaware.  Keep only the number of place settings used in the last two to five years.  A family of four which rarely entertains using chinaware does NOT need twelve place settings. Purge it to one to two place settings above the number of people who live in hour household and/or you entertain regularly.  Likewise if you sew or enjoy crafts, go through your supplies and only keep the items or colours you actually use on a regular basis.  Remember that unused supplies often degrade with time.  Keep your stash fresh!
  • Throw out or recycle any electronics or small household appliances that no longer work — including holiday lights.
  • Digitize vital records (birth certificates, passports, etc.) and keep copies in a safe place.  Mementos should also be digitally copied so you can preserve them against loss (storms, moving, etc.).
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Brother 1034D overlock machine.  I gave away mine as part of my spring cleaning because I no longer sew.

Most of the things you think you need and cherish you actually DON’T.  Does it really matter what your daughter got on a test in the third grade?  Do you really care how much money you spent on a pair of eyeglasses in 1992?  These sorts of things seem important when you file them away, but lose most of their importance as time goes on.   Don’t be afraid to take a hard look at your stuff.  For example, I used to sew.  I don’t now and I don’t particularly enjoy it; it was my mother’s thing and not mine.  So I recently gave away my overlock machine.  I don’t need it and it was taking up a lot of precious space while being too heavy to move easily.  Same with fabric.  If you don’t have a project for it, either designate it to a project with a set deadline for completion or get rid of it.

Remember that space is expensive in both time and money.  Take this opportunity to purge your home of what you do not need.  You’ll be happier, healthier, more organized, and you’ll get more enjoyment out of your home.

 

 

Bed bugs and bed foundations: protecting your home

beauty sleep set

A typical American bed: mattress over a foundation.

 

Bed bugs are everywhere.  Live for any length of time in an apartment building of any size (such as my sky rise where I’m on the 15th floor) and sooner or later you will encounter these vermin whose bites are extremely itchy and painful.

For those blessed to have not encountered them yet bed bugs are tiny (less than 5mm) insects resembling ticks when they’ve gorged on your blood. Their bites look like red pin pricks and are usually in groups of two or three in a row spaced  3mm to 13 mm apart.  Bed bug saliva is extremely irritating — worse than even mosquitos — and just as painful.

If you are bitten the first thing to do is thoroughly wash the bites with soap and water before treating with ice for any welts that may form in response to them.  Once the saliva is washed out of the wound, I’ve found that aloe vera with lidocaine (typically used for sunburns) helps with the initial pain and discomfort.  Follow this up with calamine solution (drug store brands work great) to speed healing.

I know all of this of course because over the holidays bed bugs found their way into my home and my life.  Contrary to popular belief, cleanliness does not protect you from bed bugs.  They can attack any home or business at any time and are extremely good at hitching rides in purses, luggage, tote bags, etc. and latching themselves onto your clothes (just as ticks will).  So expect bed bugs to come into your life at some point.  Don’t play denial and think it cannot or will not happen.  It will — but there are things you can do to protect yourself.

Sealy bed foundation

A typical bed foundation sold with mattresses in furniture and bedding stores.

Let’s begin with the bed you purchase.  When the exterminator came to my apartment recently for the first treatment (there will be three and yes, you absolutely need a professional to get rid of them) one of the first things he did was tear away the bottom fabric to my “box spring” (now called “foundations” by bedding stores) so he could treat the insides and spray, revealing something startling to me about my bed:  though we usually call it a “box spring” there are no springs in it — even in name brands like my Sealy set that cost me over $600 for the twin size.

Instead the “box spring” foundation in my bed is a wooden frame made of roughly 1/2″ thick and 4″ wide boards and slates.  Over this is a thin sheet of plywood and covered with a nice fabric. The entire foundation is made of WOOD and if you stepped on it it would quickly fall apart.

The whole thing makes a very appealing environment for all sorts of vermin, even sitting upon the thin metal rails Americans call “frames” which lift bed foundations off the floor.

Cadiz_Metal_Bed_Frame_2

This metal bed from the UK is bed bug resistant while providing excellent mattress support and comfort.

And sadly the metal frame/foundation box/mattress system is typical for beds sold in the United States, even though most furniture stores sell proper beds which support mattresses without needing to use a foundation.

As I’ve found recently, this is not the case elsewhere.

Browsing around a popular UK furniture store online I found that no where on that massive site with its hundreds of mattresses and hundreds of beds was a single foundation available.  Instead, the only choices were proper beds that support mattresses — like the one right here to the left that I personally like that is all metal.

 

All metal is bed bug resistant, especially in this open frame style where the only place to breed in and hide is your mattress itself.

Which brings us to the other critically important preventative that EVERYONE should be doing before the store sets up any new mattress onto your bed:  ENCASEMENTS.

bed bug encasement

Encasements cover all six walls and guard against infestations.  Use one for your mattress and a second one for your foundation if you have one.

Most people know about protective mattress pads designed to keep beds clean from stains and liquid seepage into the bed.  These typically cover five walls — top and the four sides — just like your sheet does.  But vermin love the undersides of furniture, especially beds and these are not kept out by the typical mattress protector.

Encasements are different:  they completely encase the mattress around all six walls to keep insects out.  The better encasements have special features around the zippers and seams to provide additional protection, features absolutely worth the extra money.  Putting an encasement around an infested mattress or foundation traps the insects inside so they cannot reach you on the surface to feed — which is why they are critical to any bed bug treatment plan. But the best time to put one of these encasements onto your mattress (and foundation if you have one) is immediately upon delivery of your bedding pieces.

Do not delay this.  Do not play with this.  Do not convince yourself that you cannot afford the encasements. Exterminating a bed bug problem is more expensive.  Replacing all your bed pieces is more expensive.  Replacing your bed linens, blankets, and pillows is more expensive.  And remember:  you can pick up bed bugs anywhere — including hotel rooms when you travel, your work place, even public places where you usually feel safe from insects.  They can travel through walls and come over from your neighbours.  Absolutely no one is immune, no matter how clean you are or how careful you are.

An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.

Save yourself the agony I’m going through and protective yourself right now — before bed bugs take up home where you sleep.